Cost-Effective Large-Scale 3D Printing for The Industrial Sector with Locally Developed Hybrid -Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (H-WAAM) Technology

Problem Statement

Industry adoption of Additive Manufacturing (AM) is not common due to issues of quality, accuracy, repeatability, strength, and the need to do extensive post-processing. On the other hand, Subtractive Manufacturing (SM) technology has high accuracy in part geometry but has limited tool reach.  To overcome the limitations of both AM and SM processes, the hybrid manufacturing process has evolved as an attractive methodology.


This project aims to develop a new robotic Hybrid Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (H-WAAM) technology using a hybrid additive and subtractive manufacturing process. This system could significantly increase the maximum size of 3D printed metal parts to over 1.5m and reduce the costs of current SLM or equivalent technology

Equipment, process planning, and characterization development by SUTD & 3D Metal Forge
Equipment, process planning, and characterization development by SUTD & 3D Metal Forge

Key Benefits/Outcomes

  • Successfully developed an adaptive Hybrid Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (H-WAAM) System with layer sensing feedback for adaptive additive and subtractive process planning.
  • Developed a learning and correction framework to study the direct effect of layer print and simultaneously correct any print surface digression. This allows for in-situ learning and adaptative process planning to achieve a more consistent print layer.
  • SUTD and 3D Metal Forge have built the core capability to perform wire arc AM for SS316 and X96 material.
  • The technology is licensed to 3D Metal Forge and the company has commissioned and tested an integrated H-WAAM system in PSA’s maritime 3D printing facility. It is also part of the JIP between NAMIC, MPA, and PSA.
  • Currently testing and commissioning printing strategies for producing a twistlock pin according to PSA’s requirement and currently planning for the end-user acceptance test.



Mr. Marc Lee